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What is Urology?

Urology is a surgical department interested in the female and male urinary tract and organs and the reproductive organs of men, dealing with the diagnosis, medical and surgical treatment of these diseases.

All procedures performed in our urology clinic are performed by specialist physicians, experienced assistant health personnel and up-to-date medical equipment. In our clinic, uro-genital diseases diagnosed with current and latest technological methods are treated with medical treatment, endoscopic surgery and open/laparoscopic surgery methods.

Diagnostic Methods in Urology

Laboratory Examinations

Blood and urine tests are frequently used for the diagnosis of urological diseases.  As a result of these tests, changes in the blood and urine are revealed and the disease is understood. Accordingly, it is determined how the treatment process will be. The most frequently requested analyzes in our urology department are; sperm analysis, search for tumor markers, bacteria and virus scans, search for various proteins and enzymes. In addition, samples from other parts of the body can be taken and examined for potential diseases that may arise due to urological diseases.

Ultrasound (Urinary USG, Doppler USG, Transrectal USG)

Ultrasound is one of the most used devices to examine and visualized organs inside the body, especially in the abdomen. The ultrasound device does not cause any harm to the body. It is most commonly used for pregnancy follow-up and detection of gynecological diseases. Urology is one of the departments where ultrasound is used.  Transrectal USG is used to detect diseases such as prostate gland cancer and benign prostate enlargement; Urinary USG is used to investigate all kinds of diseases related to the urinary system, and Doppler USG is used to examine vessels in tumors and similar structures detected in these regions.


It is a diagnostic method that measures urine flow rate and duration. You must have a full bladder for uroflowmetry. Afterwards, the bladder is completely emptied, and meanwhile, urine measurement is made with the help of the device.

Computed Tomography (CT) / Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

Computed tomography (CT) is the process of combining x-ray images taken from multiple angles of soft tissues, vessels and bones. In the CT procedure, the patient lies motionless on the table, while the tomography device constantly moves around the patient and takes images from every angle. In order not to affect the clarity of the image, the patient should only have patient gown. Pregnant women and those with suspected pregnancy cannot undergo CT due to high radiation exposure.

Computed tomography is used for the imaging of kidney stones, ureter and bladder stones, investigation of tumors related to the urinary system and male reproductive organs and traumas of these organs.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a device that allows imaging of any part of the body using electromagnetic and radio waves. Since x-rays are not used in MRI, it does not emit radiation. For this reason, there is no harm. It can be used in most patients, even pregnant women if recommended by a physician. However, there should not be any metal objects on the patient during the procedure due to the high magnetic field.  It can be preferred by urology specialists in the diagnosis and follow-up of all cancers related to the urinary system and male reproductive organs, especially prostate cancer and benign prostate enlargement.

Voiding cystourethrograpy

Voiding cystourethrography is a procedure performed by injecting contrast agent into the bladder with the help of a catheter in order to visualize the bladder and urinary ducts during voiding. It is commonly used if there is a suspicion of urine leakage (vesicoureteral reflux). If vesicoureteral reflux is not treated and progresses, it can reach the kidneys. This can cause serious illnesses.

VSUG is an imaging technique that uses x-rays. There should be no metal objects on the patient's clothing during the procedure so that it does not adversely affect the image.


Urodynamics is a method generally used to determine the causes of urinary incontinence.  In this method, the bladder is filled with liquid with the help of a catheter and the contractions during discharge are examined by computer. Except for urinary incontinence diseases, urodynamics can be performed to diagnose complications that may occur after treatment in prostate diseases. The urodynamic test is also frequently used in patients who have problems such as frequent urination and difficulty urinating.

PSA Test

The enzyme that regulates the consistency and fluidity of the semen in the prostate is called PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen). In healthy people, the PSA level is very low in the blood. However, any disease in the prostate changes the level of PSA in the blood. For this reason, the PSA test in the blood is very important in the diagnosis of prostate diseases. The PSA test can be done at any time of the day; it does not require hunger or satiety.

Prostate biopsy

Prostate biopsy is the process of taking a sample of the prostate in order to detect prostate cancer. Since the prostate biopsy is performed with local anesthesia, there is no pain or discomfort during the procedure. After the procedure, the sample is sent to pathology for examination. The treatment method is determined according to the result. Even if the findings related to prostate cancer are determined with the PSA test, it is necessary to wait for the biopsy result for a definitive diagnosis.

Other procedures by our department

  • Bladder tumor surgery                 
  • Prostate cancer surgical treatment                       
  • Kidney and adrenal gland tumor / cyst surgery



What diseases does the urology department treat?

  • Kidney cyst, kidney cancer, kidney stone, outlet strictures and kidney infections in adults and children.
  • Ureteral stones, ureteral cancers/strictures and ureteral infections in adults and children.
  • Prostate cancers, benign prostatic enlargement (benign prostatic hyperplasia) and infections in men.
  • Urinary incontinence
  • Testicular cancer, undescended testis, hydrocele, varicocele, cysts and infections in adults and children.
  • Hypospadias in children.

How is prostate treatment done?

The prostate is a gland located under the urinary bladder in men and surrounds this area. It is one of the organs that cause the most health problems, especially in elderly men. Health problems in the prostate can be listed as enlarged prostate, prostate cancer and prostatitis. Each of these diseases is treated separately.

What is prostate enlargement? How is the treatment done?

One of the most common diseases of the prostate gland is an enlarged prostate. In general, benign prostate enlargement is frequently seen in male patients aged 50 and over. An enlarged prostate gland narrows the urethra and bladder, making the flow of urine difficult. In addition, it can prevent not only urine discharge, but also urine retention. It manifests itself with symptoms such as frequent urination, incomplete emptying and intermittent urination. There are medicated or surgical treatment options for benign prostatic enlargement. Surgical treatment options in our hospital include greenlight laser and closed surgery (TUR).

How is urinary tract infection treated?

Antibiotics are generally used in urinary tract infections. Depending on the results of the urine analysis, it is decided which drugs will be used and for how long. If the infection in the urinary tract is not treated, it can spread to the kidneys and cause diseases. Symptoms of the disease are pain or burning sensation while urinating, intermittent urine, bloody urine, or severe abdominal pain after urination.

Which doctor should I go to for kidney stones?

It is necessary to go to a urologist for the diagnosis and treatment of kidney stones. Since surgical methods can be used for the treatment of large stones, an experienced urology doctor should be consulted in kidney stone surgeries.

How is kidney stone treated?

 The method in the treatment of kidney stones is determined by the size, region and type of the stone. Consumption of plenty of water and medication may be sufficient to reduce small kidney stones. There are various treatment methods for larger stones. These are breaking the kidney stone with sound waves (ESWL), ureteroscopy, open kidney stone surgery, hyperparathyroidism surgery.

What is the treatment for kidney failure?

The treatment method in kidney failure is determined according to the needs of the patient. The most commonly used methods are dialysis and kidney transplantation. Dialysis treatment ensures that the blood is filtered and purified from toxic substances with the help of machines. Thus, the kidney fulfills its function. During dialysis treatment, a diet that is restricted in salt and potassium should be applied. Dialysis does not completely eliminate the disease; but it prolongs lifespan.

In kidney transplantation, from the moment the new kidney begins to adapt to the body, it works properly and there is no need for dialysis. The biggest problem in kidney transplantation is the possibility of waiting for many years and the side effects of the drugs used to adapt the kidney to the body. In addition, not every transplant operation is successful. For this reason, transplantation is not recommended for each patient.